Nathan Price, PhD

Associate Director

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(206) 732-1204


Nathan Price is the Associate Director of the Institute for Systems Biology. He is also Affiliate Faculty in the Departments of Bioengineering, Computer Science & Engineering, and Molecular & Cellular Biology at the University of Washington.  Prior to joining ISB in 2011, he was an assistant professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he maintains adjunct appointments.  Dr. Price has won numerous awards for his work, including an American Cancer Society Postdoctoral Fellowship, a Howard Temin Pathway to Independence Award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER award, a young investigator award from the Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust, being named as one of the inaugural “Tomorrow’s PIs” by Genome Technology, and, most recently, as a Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar. Dr. Price served on the National Academies-Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee to review omics based tests to predict clinical outcome in clinical trials from 2010-2012. Dr. Price served on the scientific advisory board of TetraVitae Bioscience until it was acquired by Eastman Chemical in 2011. He now serves on the Scientific Advisory Boards of Trelys, Inc. and the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability.  He is also a member of the Board of Directors of the P4 Medicine Institute. He serves on the editorial boards of several scientific journals, including Science Translational MedicineIEEE Life Science LettersBMC Systems Biology, Industrial Biotechnology, and Biotechnology Journal, and was previously a Deputy Editor of PLOS Computational Biology. For more information, please see the Price Lab Website.

PhD, Bioengineering University of California, San Diego, 2005

Computational biology, biological networks, genome-scale models, translational bioinformatics

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Eddy, James A., Cory C. Funk, and Nathan D. Price. 2015. “Fostering Synergy between Cell Biology and Systems Biology.” Trends Cell Biol, May. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2015.04.005. Cite
Ament, S. A., S. Szelinger, G. Glusman, J. Ashworth, L. Hou, N. Akula, T. Shekhtman, et al. 2015. “Rare Variants in Neuronal Excitability Genes Influence Risk for Bipolar Disorder.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (11): 3576–81. Cite
Simeonidis, E., and N. D. Price. 2015. “Genome-Scale Modeling for Metabolic Engineering.” Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology 42 (3): 327–38. Cite
Chakrabarty, P., A. Li, C. Ceballos-Diaz, J. A. Eddy, C. C. Funk, B. Moore, N. DiNunno, et al. 2015. “IL-10 Alters Immunoproteostasis in APP Mice, Increasing Plaque Burden and Worsening Cognitive Behavior.” Neuron 85 (3): 519–33. Cite
Chandrasekaran, S., C. C. Rittschof, D. Djukovic, H. Gu, D. Raftery, N. D. Price, and G. E. Robinson. 2015. “Aggression Is Associated with Aerobic Glycolysis in the Honey Bee Brain.” Genes, Brain, and Behavior, January. Cite
Heavner, B. D., and N. D. Price. 2015. “Transparency in Metabolic Network Reconstruction Enables Scalable Biological Discovery.” Current Opinion in Biotechnology 34C (January): 105–9. Cite
Hood, L., J. C. Lovejoy, and N. D. Price. 2015. “Integrating Big Data and Actionable Health Coaching to Optimize Wellness.” BMC Medicine 13: 4. Cite
Imam, Saheed, Sascha Schäuble, Aaron N. Brooks, Nitin S. Baliga, and Nathan D. Price. 2015. “Data-Driven Integration of Genome-Scale Regulatory and Metabolic Network Models.” Front Microbiol 6: 409. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00409. Cite
Minch, Kyle J., Tige R. Rustad, Eliza J. R. Peterson, Jessica Winkler, David J. Reiss, Shuyi Ma, Mark Hickey, et al. 2015. “The DNA-Binding Network of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.” Nat Commun 6: 5829. doi:10.1038/ncomms6829. Cite
Turkarslan, Serdar, Eliza J. R. Peterson, Tige R. Rustad, Kyle J. Minch, David J. Reiss, Robert Morrison, Shuyi Ma, Nathan D. Price, David R. Sherman, and Nitin S. Baliga. 2015. “A Comprehensive Map of Genome-Wide Gene Regulation in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.” Sci Data 2: 150010. doi:10.1038/sdata.2015.10. Cite


Sangar, Vineet, Cory C. Funk, Ulrike Kusebauch, David S. Campbell, R. L. Moritz, and Nathan D. Price. 2014. “Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Effects of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) on Invasion-Promoting Proteins Secreted by Glioblastoma Cells.” Mol Cell Proteomics 13 (October): 2618–31. doi:10.1074/mcp.M114.040428. Cite
Craig, Theodore A., Yuji Zhang, Andrew T. Magis, Cory C. Funk, Nathan D. Price, Stephen C. Ekker, and Rajiv Kumar. 2014. “Detection of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-Regulated miRNAs in Zebrafish by Whole Transcriptome Sequencing.” Zebrafish, March. doi:10.1089/zeb.2013.0899. Cite
Hood, L., and N. D. Price. 2014. “Demystifying Disease, Democratizing Health Care.” Science Translational Medicine 6 (225): 225ed5. Cite
Lausted, C., I. Lee, Y. Zhou, S. Qin, J. Sung, N. D. Price, L. Hood, and K. Wang. 2014. “Systems Approach to Neurodegenerative Disease Biomarker Discovery.” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 54 (January): 457–81. Cite
Bai, Jane PF, Robert J. Fontana, Nathan D. Price, and Vineet Sangar. 2014. “Systems Pharmacology Modeling: An Approach to Improving Drug Safety.” Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 35 (1): 1–14. Cite
Benedict, M. N., J. R. Henriksen, W. W. Metcalf, R. J. Whitaker, and N. D. Price. 2014. “ITEP: An Integrated Toolkit for Exploration of Microbial Pan-Genomes.” BMC Genomics 15 (1): 8. Cite
Brownstein, Catherine A., Alan H. Beggs, Nils Homer, Barry Merriman, Timothy W. Yu, Katherine C. Flannery, Elizabeth T. DeChene, et al. 2014. “An International Effort towards Developing Standards for Best Practices in Analysis, Interpretation and Reporting of Clinical Genome Sequencing Results in the CLARITY Challenge.” Genome Biol 15: R53. doi:10.1186/gb-2014-15-3-r53. Cite
Labhsetwar, Piyush, John Cole, Nathan Price, and Zaida Luthey-Schulten. 2014. “Elucidating Metabolic Variability in Isogenic Microbial Populations Arising due to Noise in Protein Expression.” Biophysical Journal 106 (2): 644a. Cite
Lausted, Christopher, Inyoul Lee, Yong Zhou, Shizhen Qin, Jaeyun Sung, Nathan D. Price, Leroy Hood, and Kai Wang. 2014. “Systems Approach to Neurodegenerative Disease Biomarker Discovery.” Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 54: 457–81. doi:10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-011613-135928. Cite
Muller, Emilie E. L., Nicolás Pinel, Cedric C. Laczny, Michael R. Hoopmann, Shaman Narayanasamy, Laura A. Lebrun, Hugo Roume, et al. 2014. “Community-Integrated Omics Links Dominance of a Microbial Generalist to Fine-Tuned Resource Usage.” Nat Commun 5: 5603. doi:10.1038/ncomms6603. Cite
Richards, Matthew A., Victor Cassen, Benjamin D. Heavner, Nassim E. Ajami, Andrea Herrmann, Evangelos Simeonidis, and Nathan D. Price. 2014. “MediaDB: A Database of Microbial Growth Conditions in Defined Media.” PLoS One 9: e103548. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103548. Cite
Rustad, Tige R., Kyle J. Minch, Shuyi Ma, Jessica K. Winkler, Samuel Hobbs, Mark Hickey, William Brabant, et al. 2014. “Mapping and Manipulating the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Transcriptome Using a Transcription Factor Overexpression-Derived Regulatory Network.” Genome Biol 15: 502. doi:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1701638048134699. Cite
Wang, Yi, Holger Janssen, Caroline B. Milne, Andrew T. Magis, Yong-Su Jin, Nathan D. Price, and Hans P. Blaschek. 2014. “136. Understanding Fundamental Aspects of Butanol Production by Clostridium Beijerinckii.” 2014 Genomic Science Contractor-Grantee Meeting XII, 234. Cite


Chandrasekaran, S., and N. D. Price. 2013. “Metabolic Constraint-Based Refinement of Transcriptional Regulatory Networks.” PLoS Comput Biol 9 (12): e1003370. Cite
Lausted, C., I. Lee, Y. Zhou, S. Qin, J. Sung, N. D. Price, L. Hood, and K. Wang. 2013. “Systems Approach to Neurodegenerative Disease Biomarker Discovery.” Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, October. Cite
Wang, Yi, Xiangzhen Li, Caroline B. Milne, Holger Janssen, Weiyin Lin, Gloria Phan, Huiying Hu, Yong-Su Jin, Nathan D. Price, and Hans P. Blaschek. 2013. “Development of a Gene Knockout System Using Mobile Group II Introns (Targetron) and Genetic Disruption of Acid Production Pathways in Clostridium Beijerinckii.” Appl Environ Microbiol 79 (October): 5853–63. doi:10.1128/AEM.00971-13. Cite
Labhsetwar, Piyush, John Andrew Cole, Elijah Roberts, Nathan D. Price, and Zaida A. Luthey-Schulten. 2013. “Heterogeneity in Protein Expression Induces Metabolic Variability in a Modeled Escherichia Coli Population.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 (August): 14006–11. doi:10.1073/pnas.1222569110. Cite
Sung, J., P. J. Kim, S. Ma, C. C. Funk, A. T. Magis, Y. Wang, L. Hood, D. Geman, and N. D. Price. 2013. “Multi-Study Integration of Brain Cancer Transcriptomes Reveals Organ-Level Molecular Signatures.” PLoS Comput Biol 9 (7): e1003148. Cite
Thiele, I., N. Swainston, R. M. Fleming, A. Hoppe, S. Sahoo, M. K. Aurich, H. Haraldsdottir, et al. 2013. “A Community-Driven Global Reconstruction of Human Metabolism.” Nature Biotechnology, March. Cite
Gonnerman, M. C., M. N. Benedict, A. M. Feist, W. W. Metcalf, and N. D. Price. 2013. “Genomically and Biochemically Accurate Metabolic Reconstruction of Methanosarcina Barkeri Fusaro, iMG746.” Biotechnology Journal, February. Cite
Ko, Y., S. A. Ament, J. A. Eddy, J. Caballero, J. C. Earls, L. Hood, and N. D. Price. 2013. “Cell Type-Specific Genes Show Striking and Distinct Patterns of Spatial Expression in the Mouse Brain.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 (8): 3095–3100. Cite
Dong, Yiran, Charu Gupta Kumar, Nicholas Chia, Pan-Jun Kim, Philip A. Miller, Nathan D. Price, Isaac K. O. Cann, et al. 2013. “Halomonas Sulfidaeris-Dominated Microbial Community Inhabits a 1.8 Km-Deep Subsurface Cambrian Sandstone Reservoir.” Environ Microbiol, November. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12325. Cite
Earls, J. C., J. A. Eddy, C. C. Funk, Y. Ko, A. T. Magis, and N. D. Price. 2013. “AUREA: An Open-Source Software System for Accurate and User-Friendly Identification of Relative Expression Molecular Signatures.” BMC Bioinformatics 14: 78. Cite
Flores, Mauricio, G. Glusman, Kristin Brogaard, Nathan D. Price, and Leroy Hood. 2013. “P4 Medicine: How Systems Medicine Will Transform the Healthcare Sector and Society.” Personalized Medicine 10 (No. 6): 565–76. Cite
Heavner, B. D., K. Smallbone, N. D. Price, and L. P. Walker. 2013. “Version 6 of the Consensus Yeast Metabolic Network Refines Biochemical Coverage and Improves Model Performance.” Database (Oxford) 2013: bat059. Cite
Simeonidis, E., S. Chandrasekaran, and N. D. Price. 2013. “A Guide to Integrating Transcriptional Regulatory and Metabolic Networks Using PROM (probabilistic Regulation of Metabolism).” Methods Mol Biol 985: 103–12. Cite
Wang, C., C. C. Funk, J. A. Eddy, and N. D. Price. 2013. “Transcriptional Analysis of Aggressiveness and Heterogeneity across Grades of Astrocytomas.” PLoS One 8 (10): e76694. Cite


Muller, E. E., N. Pinel, J. D. Gillece, J. M. Schupp, L. B. Price, D. M. Engelthaler, C. Levantesi, et al. 2012. “Genome Sequence of ‘Candidatus Microthrix Parvicella’ Bio17-1, a Long-Chain-Fatty-Acid-Accumulating Filamentous Actinobacterium from a Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant.” Journal of Bacteriology 194 (23): 6670–71. Cite
Craig, T. A., Y. Zhang, M. S. McNulty, S. Middha, H. Ketha, R. J. Singh, A. T. Magis, et al. 2012. “Research Resource: Whole Transcriptome RNA Sequencing Detects Multiple 1alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin d3-Sensitive Metabolic Pathways in Developing Zebrafish.” Molecular Endocrinology 26 (9): 1630–42. Cite
Magis, A. T., and N. D. Price. 2012. “The Top-Scoring ’N’ Algorithm: A Generalized Relative Expression Classification Method from Small Numbers of Biomolecules.” BMC Bioinformatics 13 (1): 227. Cite
Sung, J., Y. Wang, S. Chandrasekaran, D. M. Witten, and N. D. Price. 2012. “Molecular Signatures from Omics Data: From Chaos to Consensus.” Biotechnology Journal, April. Cite
Bebek, G., M. Koyuturk, N. D. Price, and M. R. Chance. 2012. “Network Biology Methods Integrating Biological Data for Translational Science.” Briefings in Bioinformatics, March. Cite
Benedict, M. N., M. C. Gonnerman, W. W. Metcalf, and N. D. Price. 2012. “Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction and Hypothesis Testing in the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanosarcina Acetivorans C2A.” Journal of Bacteriology 194 (4): 855–65. Cite
Sangar, V., J. A. Eddy, E. Simeonidis, and N. D. Price. 2012. “Mechanistic Modeling of Aberrant Energy Metabolism in Human Disease.” Frontiers in Physiology 3: 404. Cite
Simcha, D., N. D. Price, and D. Geman. 2012. “The Limits of de Novo DNA Motif Discovery.” PloS One 7 (11): e47836. Cite
Wang, Y., J. A. Eddy, and N. D. Price. 2012. “Reconstruction of Genome-Scale Metabolic Models for 126 Human Tissues Using mCADRE.” BMC Systems Biology 6: 153. Cite


Kim, P. J., and N. D. Price. 2011. “Genetic Co-Occurrence Network across Sequenced Microbes.” PLoS Computational Biology 7 (12): e1002340. Cite
Tian, Q., N. D. Price, and L. Hood. 2011. “Systems Cancer Medicine: Towards Realization of Predictive, Preventive, Personalized, and Participatory (P4) Medicine.” Journal of Internal Medicine, December. Cite
Chandrasekaran, S., S. A. Ament, J. A. Eddy, S. L. Rodriguez-Zas, B. R. Schatz, N. D. Price, and G. E. Robinson. 2011. “Behavior-Specific Changes in Transcriptional Modules Lead to Distinct and Predictable Neurogenomic States.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (44): 18020–25. Cite
Li, Q., C. R. Singh, S. Ma, N. D. Price, and C. Jagannath. 2011. “Label-Free Proteomics and Systems Biology Analysis of Mycobacterial Phagosomes in Dendritic Cells and Macrophages.” Journal of Proteome Research 10 (5): 2425–39. Cite
Magis, A. T., Earls, J. C., Ko, Y. H., Eddy, J. A. & Price, N. D. Graphics processing unit implementations of relative expression analysis algorithms enable dramatic computational speedup. Bioinformatics 27, 872–3 (2011). Cite
Cho, J. H. et al. Systems biology of interstitial lung diseases: integration of mRNA and microRNA expression changes. BMC Med Genomics 4, 8 (2011). Cite
Yan, X. et al. A CD133-related gene expression signature identifies an aggressive glioblastoma subtype with excessive mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 1591–6 (2011). Cite
Bebek, G., Koyuturk, M., Chance, M. R. & Price, N. D. INTEGRATIVE -OMICS FOR TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE - Session Introduction. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 1–3 (2011). Cite
Milne, C. B. et al. Metabolic network reconstruction and genome-scale model of butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052. BMC systems biology 5, 130 (2011). Cite


Ma, S., Funk, C. C. & Price, N. D. Systems approaches to molecular cancer diagnostics. Discovery medicine 10, 531–42 (2010). Cite
Yang, J. et al. Integrated proteomics and genomics analysis reveals a novel mesenchymal to epithelial reverting transition in leiomyosarcoma through regulation of slug. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 9, 2405–13 (2010). Cite
Chandrasekaran, S. & Price, N. D. Probabilistic integrative modeling of genome-scale metabolic and regulatory networks in Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107, 17845–50 (2010). Cite
Edelman, L. B., Eddy, J. A. & Price, N. D. In silico models of cancer. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Systems biology and medicine 2, 438–59 (2010). Cite
Price, N. D. & Lee, S. Y. Editorial: Systems biology for biotech applications. Biotechnology journal 5, 636–7 (2010). Cite
Eddy, J. A., Sung, J., Geman, D. & Price, N. D. Relative expression analysis for molecular cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Technology in cancer research & treatment 9, 149–59 (2010). Cite
Kim, P. J. & Price, N. D. Macroscopic kinetic effect of cell-to-cell variation in biochemical reactions. Physical review letters 104, 148103 (2010). Cite
Ezeji, T., Milne, C., Price, N. D. & Blaschek, H. P. Achievements and perspectives to overcome the poor solvent resistance in acetone and butanol-producing microorganisms. Applied microbiology and biotechnology 85, 1697–712 (2010). Cite
Galas, D. J., M. Nykter, G. W. Carter, N. D. Price, and I. Shmulevich. 2010. “Biological Information as Set-Based Complexity.” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 56 (2): 667–77. Cite
Eddy, J. A., Hood, L., Price, N. D. & Geman, D. Identifying tightly regulated and variably expressed networks by Differential Rank Conservation (DIRAC). PLoS Comput Biol 6, e1000792 (2010). Cite
Edelman, L. B., Chandrasekaran, S. & Price, N. D. Systems biology of embryogenesis. Reproduction, fertility, and development 22, 98–105 (2010). Cite


Milne, C. B., Kim, P. J., Eddy, J. A. & Price, N. D. Accomplishments in genome-scale in silico modeling for industrial and medical biotechnology. Biotechnology journal 4, 1653–70 (2009). Cite
Eddy, J. A., Geman, D. & Price, N. D. Relative expression analysis for identifying perturbed pathways. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 2009, 5456–9 (2009). Cite
Edelman, L. B., Toia, G., Geman, D., Zhang, W. & Price, N. D. Two-transcript gene expression classifiers in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. BMC genomics 10, 583 (2009). Cite
Hwang, D. et al. A systems approach to prion disease. Molecular systems biology 5, 252 (2009). Cite
Price, N. D. et al. in Genomic and Personalized Medicine: From Principles to Practice (Elsevier, 2009). Cite


Nykter, M., N. D. Price, M. Aldana, S. A. Ramsey, S. A. Kauffman, L. E. Hood, O. Yli-Harja, and I. Shmulevich. 2008. “Gene Expression Dynamics in the Macrophage Exhibit Criticality.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 (6): 1897–1900. Cite
Nykter, M. et al. Critical networks exhibit maximal information diversity in structure-dynamics relationships. Phys Rev Lett 100, 058702 (2008). Cite
Price, N. D., Foltz, G., Madan, A., Hood, L. & Tian, Q. Systems biology and cancer stem cells. J Cell Mol Med 12, 97–110 (2008). Cite


Price, N. D. & Shmulevich, I. Biochemical and statistical network models for systems biology. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18, 365–70 (2007). Cite
Price, N. D. et al. Highly accurate two-gene classifier for differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumors and leiomyosarcomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 3414–9 (2007). Cite


Gianchandani, E. P., Papin, J. A., Price, N. D., Joyce, A. R. & Palsson, B. O. Matrix formalism to describe functional states of transcriptional regulatory systems. PLoS computational biology 2, e101 (2006). Cite
Price, N. D., Thiele, I. & Palsson, B. O. Candidate states of Helicobacter pylori‘s genome-scale metabolic network upon application of ’loop law" thermodynamic constraints. Biophysical journal 90, 3919–28 (2006). Cite
Allen, T. E., Price, N. D., Joyce, A. R. & Palsson, B. O. Long-range periodic patterns in microbial genomes indicate significant multi-scale chromosomal organization. PLoS computational biology 2, e2 (2006). Cite
Barrett, C. L., Price, N. D. & Palsson, B. O. Network-level analysis of metabolic regulation in the human red blood cell using random sampling and singular value decomposition. BMC bioinformatics 7, 132 (2006). Cite
Becker, S. A., Price, N. D. & Palsson, B. O. Metabolite coupling in genome-scale metabolic networks. BMC bioinformatics 7, 111 (2006). Cite


Thiele, I., Vo, T. D., Price, N. D. & Palsson, B. O. Expanded metabolic reconstruction of Helicobacter pylori (iIT341 GSM/GPR): an in silico genome-scale characterization of single- and double-deletion mutants. Journal of bacteriology 187, 5818–30 (2005). Cite
Thiele, I., Price, N. D., Vo, T. D. & Palsson, B. O. Candidate metabolic network states in human mitochondria. Impact of diabetes, ischemia, and diet. The Journal of biological chemistry 280, 11683–95 (2005). Cite


Price, N. D., Reed, J. L. & Palsson, B. O. Genome-scale models of microbial cells: evaluating the consequences of constraints. Nature reviews. Microbiology 2, 886–97 (2004). Cite
Price, N. D., Schellenberger, J. & Palsson, B. O. Uniform sampling of steady-state flux spaces: means to design experiments and to interpret enzymopathies. Biophysical journal 87, 2172–86 (2004). Cite
Papin, J. A. et al. Comparison of network-based pathway analysis methods. Trends in biotechnology 22, 400–5 (2004). Cite
Raghunathan, A. et al. In Silico Metabolic Model and Protein Expression of Haemophilus influenzae Strain Rd KW20 in Rich Medium. Omics : a journal of integrative biology 8, 25–41 (2004). Cite


Price, N. D., Reed, J. L., Papin, J. A., Wiback, S. J. & Palsson, B. O. Network-based analysis of metabolic regulation in the human red blood cell. Journal of theoretical biology 225, 185–94 (2003). Cite
Palsson, B. O., Price, N. D. & Papin, J. A. Development of network-based pathway definitions: the need to analyze real metabolic networks. Trends in biotechnology 21, 195–8 (2003). Cite
Papin, J. A., Price, N. D., Wiback, S. J., Fell, D. A. & Palsson, B. O. Metabolic pathways in the post-genome era. Trends in biochemical sciences 28, 250–8 (2003). Cite
Price, N. D., Papin, J. A., Schilling, C. H. & Palsson, B. O. Genome-scale microbial in silico models: the constraints-based approach. Trends in biotechnology 21, 162–9 (2003). Cite
Price, N. D., Reed, J. L., Papin, J. A., Famili, I. & Palsson, B. O. Analysis of metabolic capabilities using singular value decomposition of extreme pathway matrices. Biophysical journal 84, 794–804 (2003). Cite


Papin, J. A., Price, N. D. & Palsson, B. O. Extreme pathway lengths and reaction participation in genome-scale metabolic networks. Genome research 12, 1889–900 (2002). Cite
Price, N. D., Famili, I., Beard, D. A. & Palsson, B. O. Extreme pathways and Kirchhoff’s second law. Biophysical journal 83, 2879–82 (2002). Cite
Price, N. D., Papin, J. A. & Palsson, B. O. Determination of redundancy and systems properties of the metabolic network of Helicobacter pylori using genome-scale extreme pathway analysis. Genome research 12, 760–9 (2002). Cite
Papin, J. A., Price, N. D., Edwards, J. S. & Palsson, B. B. The genome-scale metabolic extreme pathway structure in Haemophilus influenzae shows significant network redundancy. Journal of theoretical biology 215, 67–82 (2002). Cite